Mar 9, 2011 ... Silicon processing: from quartz to crystalline silicon solar cells. B.S. Xakalashe1,2 and M. Tangstad2. Mintek, Randburg, South Africa1; NTNU, .... GaAs (a direct band gap semiconductor) is needed to absorb an equivalent light .... The metallurgical route entails obtaining solar-grade silicon directly from.
It is further refined to produce semiconductor grade silicon. An intermediate grade with impurity levels between metallurgical silicon and semiconductor grade silicon is often termed solar grade silicon. ... While beach sand is also largely quartz, the most common raw material for electronic grade is high purity quartz rock.